LESS… What Customers Really Want
By Geoffrey A. Fowler via online.WSJ.com Article
Build a Better Mousetrap—Fast
“New facilities let entrepreneurs create physical products at speeds and costs that were once unthinkable
… Max Gunawan spent evenings and weekends at a TechShop Inc. workshop in downtown San Francisco. There, he used computer-operated laser-cutting and milling machines to test a few ideas. Several months later, Mr. Gunawan had a prototype lamp in the shape of a book that he called Lumio. He quit his day job and raised nearly $600,000 in funding from the website Kickstarter to build his lighting-design business. … At TechShop, he had access to … more than a million dollars’ worth of wood cutters, metal punchers, 3-D printers, design software and other equipment—for a membership fee of about $125 per month.
Over the past six years, TechShop has attracted more than 4,000 members to facilities in six cities, from Round Rock, Texas, to Pittsburgh, and it has three more in the works. On most Friday nights, they hum with dozens of hobbyists, academics, students and artists sawing, blasting and carving. They have their own version of a “genius bar,” with experts in tools and manufacturing on standby.
Elsewhere, about 40 communities in the U.S. and more than 100 in other countries now have Fab Labs, workshops born from a project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that gives youth and adults access to about $100,000 worth of tools like laser cutters. Some cities have homegrown nonprofit hacker spaces where inventors can share tools, such as Brooklyn’s NYC Resistor; Artisan’s Asylum in Somerville, Mass.; and Chicago’s Pumping Station: One.”
22 Crowdfunding Sites (and How To Choose Yours!)
“It’s not just Kickstarter anymore. Here’s a road map.
Today, there are scores of crowdfunding sites. Indiegogo, Bolstr, Fundable–the list goes on. With the SEC poised to allow projects to offer equity, crowdfunding has the potential to revolutionize how entrepreneurs raise money. (For now, you have to offer some kind of reward in exchange for donations.)
But all sites are not created equal. Some specialize in nonprofits, or in certain types of products; others offer consulting services in addition to sourcing funding. In an increasingly crowded and complicated marketplace, where should you turn to fund your endeavor? Follow our map.”
3D printing is nothing special
“Before I share the story let me share a terrific definition of technology:
Technology – Something that was invented after you were born.
So I was playing with my 3D printer in my home office when my 3 year old daughter entered the room. I asked her if she wanted me to print her something. Maybe a toy or some jewelry. She replied simple ‘Ok daddy’ and seemed pretty excited about it. Who wouldn’t be, it’s a 3D printer for crying out loud. So we picked one of the bracelets from the picture below, and sent the file to the printer. A pressed the print button and it started printing. I was pretty pumped. …
I quickly said’Look, Look, it’s printing it.’ To which she replied in a nonchalant manner. ‘Ok, thanks daddy’ …
‘Look, here it is, I printed it for you!!!’. … She said Thanks daddy’ and then put it on her wrist and skipped away to get on with her 3 year old life.
3D printing to her is as ‘normal’ as cars, TV, airplanes, computers and microwave ovens. How can it not be, it was invented before she was born. … by the time she is 13 years of age, yourself and every person we know will have a 3D printer.
We’ll all be printing things in our homes on a daily basis. And if you think that isn’t possible, let me remind you that every social media channel you currently use today didn’t exist 10 years ago … 3D printing is NOW – get on it and don’t regret you let this entrepreneurial opportunity slip you by.”
By Brian de Haaff via the Aha! Blog Article
Hey Product Managers — Stop Pissing Off The Engineers
“So you are the product manager — CEO of your domain — and the go-to-guy for everything that matters. You help set the strategic framework for where your product and the business are headed and lead a cross-functional team to greatness. You see the big picture and can muck around in the minutiae with the best project manager around. … You are a rational force and a creative artist. You converse with every tribe, including customers, marketing, sales, support and every other stakeholder group that your product depends on to win in market.
… great product management is usually the difference between mediocrity and awesome. While nobody would miss product management if it (and you) disappeared in the short term, ensuring product alignment with business strategy, market opportunity, and customer need is what superstar PMs do in market leading companies.
However, the reality is that you need engineering more than they need you. They can continue to crank out product without you (and be happy doing it), but you can not write a line of code yourself. Engineers are the manufacturing engine that drives the business forward and are the most important non-customer asset in the company. You are overhead.
… consider the following five common ways that PMs piss engineers off every day. It’s a chance to pause and truly reflect. Be honest, which ones do you do? It’s a bit like body odor, self examination and fearless honesty matter.”
Everything you’ve heard about starting a business is wrong
“Starting your own business is a daunting, complicated task. Most people, after incubating an idea and mustering the courage to venture forth, spend time trying to perfect a business plan before they actually interact with a customer.
This is the wrong approach, say Dave Llorens and Ryan Ferrier, four-time entrepreneurs …
Consider … an example. Michael Armenta, Barrett Purdum and Michael Maher decided they wanted to make clothes. They knew nothing about logistics and spent the better part of a year trying to plan around that, getting nowhere. Eventually, the three got creative, measuring their friends in bars. They opened several pop-up shops around the city once they gained a little clout. …
The lesson? Interact with customers first, say Llorens and Ferrier, and plan your company around their feedback. … ‘Don’t plan forever and build the perfect machine. Listen to customers, all good comes from that.’
… the three T’s: Talk to the customer, Translate what you’ve learned into an offering, then Try it out. …
Whether it’s actually measuring strangers in bars for shirts, Llorens and Ferrier’s message is to listen to customers and not to plan too much without real information. ‘Don’t put the cart before the horse,’ Llorens says. ‘It’s about momentum.’”
The logical limits of product innovation
“Innovation appears stalled in many industries because the product or service has reached its point of diminishing marginal returns for innovation. … We’ve perfected the brewing of beer. We’ve created thousands of types of beer – lager, stout, porter, hefeweizen (my favorite), bock, etc. Have we reached the point of diminishing returns for beer innovation? I think the signals are flashing “yes”. Here’s why.
Coors recently ran an ad that highlighted the beer can. The can had three significant attributes they wanted to call to attention. First, the mountains on the can change color when the beer is cold. Second, the can has a liner to keep the beer cold. Third, the can has a new pop-top to improve airflow and drinkability. All of these things may be labelled “innovation”, but they are innovation in packaging, in marketing and in information signalling, not beer innovation. …
Note that some of these “innovations” are a bit perverse. Many beer drinkers will tell you that beer shouldn’t be too cold, otherwise you lose the flavor. And does anyone need a more technical pop-top? Were there unacceptable incidents of beer spillage or individuals who failed to get the beer from can to mouth previously?
When product manufacturers start innovating the packaging, the information about the product, the channel or the business model, it’s a good signal that they’ve reached a diminishing return on innovation in the product itself, and only a significant disruption will spark new product innovation in the sector.
Innovation itself isn’t stalled, it’s simply on hold for the next disruptive evolutionary cycle. Innovation isn’t a smooth, continuous process but a spiky discontinuous process made up of long period of incremental innovation punctuated by short bursts of disruptive innovation.”
By Alejandro Requejo via ftijournal.com Article
Is The Price Right?
“Businesses often must set prices and forecast demand without a shred of historical data or relevant comparables — in everything from consumer goods in emerging markets to innovative high-tech products for global markets. …
Because of its speed and low cost, one of the most common research techniques that companies use is contingent valuation. … researchers simply ask customers what they would be willing to pay based on a detailed product description and/or list of features.
The results, however, assume that customers know what they are willing to pay for a product absent any comparables or other context. But customers often don’t know. …
In this article, we look at how discrete choice analysis can address two common high-stakes pricing decisions.
Understanding context is critical. … For instance, consumers may say they value a certain feature of a pain killer such as how quickly it takes effect or its lack of side effects. But the equation can change completely when the context moves from a simple headache to severe arthritis.
By the same token, customers may be very enthused about new features in a smartphone but balk at the time of purchase when they discover the company doesn’t provide temporary replacements when the phone needs servicing.
In order to reliably discover what a customer is willing to pay, the research must simulate customer decisions in the context customers make them.”
By Steve Blank via hbr.org Article
Why the Lean Start-Up Changes Everything
“Launching a new enterprise—whether it’s a tech start-up, a small business, or an initiative within a large corporation—has always been a hit-or-miss proposition. According to the decades-old formula, you write a business plan, pitch it to investors, assemble a team, introduce a product, and start selling as hard as you can. And somewhere in this sequence of events, you’ll probably suffer a fatal setback. The odds are not with you: As new research by Harvard Business School’s Shikhar Ghosh shows, 75% of all start-ups fail.
But recently an important countervailing force has emerged, one that can make the process of starting a company less risky. It’s a methodology called the “lean start-up,” and it favors experimentation over elaborate planning, customer feedback over intuition, and iterative design over traditional “big design up front” development. Although the methodology is just a few years old, its concepts—such as “minimum viable product” and “pivoting”—have quickly taken root in the start-up world, and business schools have already begun adapting their curricula to teach them.”
Stop Trying to Catch Lightning in a Bottle
“I’m sure you’ve all heard saying derived from Voltaire, “don’t let perfect be the enemy of the good” which in a way is encapsulated in the lean startup movement and the ideology of shipping a “minimum viable product” (MVP) and then learning from your customer base. …
Because I live in startup land where everybody is a perfectionist. … every startup entrepreneur is trying to catch lightning in a bottle. … They want the perfect feature set, the PR company lined up to do the perfect press release, they want maximum coverage, rave reviews, viral adoption and they want to sit back and then wait for the signups to come roaring in. …
Even in the age of MVP worship I see founders who want to bundle too many features into a release because they’re worried that customers will be unhappy if they don’t. I see teams holding back on product releases even when the product is complete because they’re nervous it’s not yet good enough to get positive journalist reviews. They hold back on announcing their funding because they want to be sure they have 3 other important announcements to bundle …
Stop trying to catch lighting in a bottle.”
Innovation versus Product Development
“Since the inception of the automobile industry, product features and functions were thought to be the primary determinants for customer buying decisions. Indeed, many automobile companies have built their corporate identities around specific product characteristics such as Volvo’s emphasis on safety features, GM’s and Chrysler’s focus on “American horsepower” …
Powerful market forces and changing customer behavior have challenged this dominant interpretation of innovation … factors such as the buyer’s experience at dealerships, the availability of maintenance services, financing options … are outside of the traditional product development arena and now play a significant role in buying decisions. …
… companies … must elevate the conversation about innovation to the new language of business innovation. In conjunction with entrepreneurship and growth strategy, the six dimensions of business innovation – service, design, business model, value, customer and strategic innovation – offer multiple pathways for companies to drive growth and enterprise value creation.”
By Skylar Tibbits, director of the MIT Self-Assembly Lab via youtube.com Video
“Most of the information you need about your competitors already exists within your organization. …
- Your sales staff knows which competitors are the most aggressive, what solutions are being offered, what their marketing messages are, and whether they sell direct or through channels.
- Your purchasing managers know what supplies have been easier or harder recently to obtain because of demand from competition or supply variations.
- Your human resources people know which rivals are hiring and for which positions. They hear from candidates.
You’ll need to develop a “competitive information road map,” an outline of the information needed about your rivals and who might have the information. … Once you have interviewed each staff person, you will then know what information is lacking. Ask your customers, your suppliers or other knowledgeable people in your network to help you fill those gaps. …
You or someone in your firm should be collecting, analyzing and disseminating competitive intelligence on a continuing basis. …
You’ll make better decisions on the four Ps of marketing (product, pricing, placement and promotion) on existing products with the insight gleamed from your customers and about your competitors. And, your path to attractive future products will be much clearer.”
Via ahajokes.com Article
Theory of M&M Evolution
“Whenever I get a package of plain M&Ms, I make it my duty to continue the strength and robustness of the candy as a species. To this end, I hold M&M duels.
Taking two candies between my thumb and forefinger,I apply pressure, squeezing them together until one of them cracks and splinters. That is the “loser,” and I eat the inferior one immediately. The winner gets to go another round.
I have found that, in general, the brown and red M&Ms are tougher, and the newer blue ones are genetically inferior. I have hypothesized that the blue M&Ms as a race cannot survive long in the intense theatre of competition that is the modern candy and snack-food world.
Occasionally I will get a mutation, a candy that is misshapen, or pointier, or flatter than the rest. Almost invariably this proves to be a weakness, but on very rare occasions it gives the candy extra strength. In this way, the species continues to adapt to its environment.
When I reach the end of the pack, I am left with one M&M, the strongest of the herd. Since it would make no sense to eat this one as well, I pack it neatly in an envelope and send it to: M&M Mars, A Division of Mars, Inc. Hackettstown, NJ 17840-1503 U.S.A., along with a 3×5 card reading, ‘Please use this M&M for breeding purposes.’”
By Douglas Van Praet via Co.Create Article
Research – You’re Doing It Wrong. How Uncovering the Unconscious is Key to Creativity
“Businesses invest billions of dollars annually in market research studies developing and testing new ideas by asking consumers questions they simply can’t answer. Asking consumers what they want, or why they do what they do, is like asking the political affiliation of a tuna fish sandwich. That’s because neuroscience is now telling us that consumers, i.e., humans, make the vast majority of their decisions unconsciously.
Steve Jobs didn’t believe in market research. When a reporter once asked him how much research he conducted to develop the iPad, he quipped, “None. It isn’t the consumers’ job to know what they want.” And according to some measures, the iPad became the most successful consumer product launch ever and Apple went on to become the most valuable company of all-time. …
Einstein once said: “The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.” Creativity, the indispensable fuel of economic growth, is being killed by a corporate culture of wrongheadedness. It’s time to stop the violence! It’s time to honor the gift of the unconscious mind! …
My frustration with the tools of my trade led me to search for a more enlightening message. ….”
How the Innovation Process is Poised to Change
“I’m probably best-described as a skeptic on most new technologies. Partially because the benefits are usually wildly overstated, and partially because I’m just curmudgeonly like that. But I am very enthused about one thing in particular: the rise of the 3D printer.
… as we’ve seen, the development of new modes of computing has the occasional quality of disrupting incumbent experts on a topic who served as gatekeepers to it. A slightly wordy way of saying, in other words, that computers make things that were once available only to insiders available to all. Publishing was once restricted to those capable of buying a printing press, a few barrels of ink, and giant rolls of paper; now anyone can publish anything they want. Retailing was once restricted to those capable of buying or building a physical facility (and some warehouses to boot), now anyone can set up a store on Etsy or Amazon and sell to their heart’s content.
Similarly, I’d expect that the widespread ability of 3D printing will democratize access to the design and prototyping of products. Design is computerized now, obviously – but applications like AutoCAD have steep learning curves and are officially for professionals only. And to actually create a prototype requires some sort of engineering or artistic skill. But when creation is made as simple as touching a button, I’d expect design tools to follow suit.”
By Austin Carr via Co.DESIGN Article
The Secret Yardstick Driving Innovation At AOL, Beats, And Microsoft
“”When you look at any other email product from a distance–if you’re at a Starbucks or on the train, and you see someone reading Gmail or Yahoo–they all largely look the same,” says Bill Wetherell, a senior director of UX design at AOL. “One of the key things from a design perspective that we wanted was to do something different. And we wanted it to pass what we call the 15-foot test.”
The “15-foot test,” as Wetherell refers to it, is the threshold for differentiation he holds his team to: Products must attract attention even yards away from the computer screen. It’s the idea that in order for a product to stand out in such a crowded market, he says, “it needs not only to function differently but also look noticeably different from afar.” …
While it was once endless tech specs that drove tech reviews–RAM and processor speeds and graphics cards–companies now more often design products that pass the so-called 15-foot test, either in hardware or software or both. The larger point here is that aesthetic must be markedly different–in form factor, color, UX, and so forth–in order to attract consumers.”
By Mike Shipulski via Innovation Excellence Article
“Know what’s new in the new design. … divvy up newness into three buckets – new to your company, new to your industry, new to world. If the buckets are too big, jettison some newness, and if there’s something in the new-to-world bucket, be careful. …
Build first – build the crudest possible prototype to expose the unfamiliar, and use the learning to shape the next prototypes and to focus analyses. Do this until you run out of time. Cost and function are joined at the hip, so measure engineering on both.
Have a healthy dissatisfaction for success. Recognize success, yes, but also recognize it’s fleeting. Someone will obsolete your success, and it should be you.
To get an engineering team to believe in themselves, you must believe in them. To believe in them, you must believe in yourself.”
The Brainstorming Process Is B.S. But Can We Rework It?
“The business practice of brainstorming has been around with us so long that it seems like unadorned common sense: If you want a rash of new ideas, you get a group of people in a room, have them shout things out, and make sure not to criticize, because that sort of self-censoring is sure to kill the flow of new thoughts.
… a devastating experiment, conducted in the 1950s, … found that when test subjects tried to solve a complex puzzle, they actually came up with twice as many ideas working alone as they did when working in a group. Numerous studies have since verified that finding: Putting people into big groups doesn’t actually increase the flow of ideas. Group dynamics themselves–rather than overt criticism–work to stifle each person’s potential. …
“People in groups tend to sit back and let others do the work; they instinctively mimic others’ opinions and lose sight of their own; and, often succumb to peer pressure. The Emory University neuroscientist Gregory Berns found that when we take a stance different from the group’s, we activate the amygdala, a small organ in the brain associated with the fear of rejection. Professor Berns calls this “the pain of independence.” …
CAN WE REWORK THE BRAINSTORMING PARADIGM?
… each of these findings suggest that the brainstorming process might not be totally hopeless after all. We know that breakthrough insight likely requires intense, individual reflection. We also know that criticism unlocks creativity. And finally, we know that creativity can be fostered by a certain type of physical space. Each of these findings, taken together, is cause for optimism. For one, ….”
By Michael Schrage via HBR Blog Network Article
Don’t Confuse Engagement with User Experience
“The numbers don’t lie. The Android operating system has been outselling Apple’s iOS by nearly a 5:1 ratio. Android dominates “device share.” Yet by virtually every meaningful metric that matters,Apple’s users are reliably, revealingly and remarkably more engaged in ecommerce, browsing and apps than their Android counterparts.
Where Android jumped from 1.43% of Black Friday shopping traffic in 2010 to 4.92% this year, Apple’s iOS pole-vaulted from 3.85% to 18.46%. Barely 3% of Adobe digital magazine downloads went to Androids, fully 97% were iOS.
Put harshly, Android sells disproportionately more devices that are used disproportionately less. What gives? Literally hundreds of billions of dollars rides on the answer(s). You can be sure Amazon and Microsoft are paying — and investing — disproportionate attention to the possibilities.
The mystery shouldn’t be a mystery: Designing a great device is not the same as designing a great user experience. Designing a great user experience is not the same as designing greater engagement. While it’s completely understandable why designers, product managers and marketers might conflate them, reality suggests that a great user experience doesn’t necessarily generate engagement any more than meaningful engagement inherently assures a great user experience.”
Why Focus Groups Kill Innovation
“How many great ideas have you had sitting around a table? If you are like most people I know, not many. Yet, time after time, companies looking for a winning idea gather a group of people around a table to ask them what they would like. Other times, companies may actually develop innovative ideas–but then their impulse is to convene a focus group to critique them and, more often than not, undermine them. In my 40 years working in design and innovation, alongside some of the most brilliant minds in the business, I have never seen innovation come out of a focus group. Let me put it more strongly: Focus groups kill innovation. …
As Steve Jobs famously asserted, true innovation comes from recognizing an unmet need and designing a creative way to fill it. But focus groups can’t identify those needs for the simple reason that most people don’t know what they are missing until they experience it. A focus group can work in adding incremental improvements to an already existing product or service. But for truly game-changing ideas, they are more likely to cast doubt and skepticism upon them just because they are unfamiliar.
… Just because an idea is a good one doesn’t mean that people will immediately jump for joy the first time they hear about it. You need to test early, and you also need to test in context, directly with the people for whom it’s intended. That’s what we did with the Reebok Pump ….”
By Seth Godin in Seth’s Blog Article
Some can’t understand why a product or service doesn’t catch on. They can prove that it’s better. They can quote specs and performance and utility. It’s obvious.
The other might be willing to look at the specs, but he really doesn’t understand them enough to care. All he knows is that the other choice is beautiful–it makes him feel good. He wants to use it.
Acura vs. Lexus, Dell vs. Apple, New Jersey vs. Bali…
You can have both specs and beauty, of course, but only if you work at it.”
The Rules Of Successful Skunk Works Projects
“When Germany’s first jet fighter planes appeared in the skies over Europe in 1943, the U.S. War Department hired Lockheed Aircraft Corporation to build a working jet fighter prototype, giving it just 180 days to do so. … Challenging constraints shaped the project: build a jet fighter prototype that would fly at 600 miles per hour–the edge of the speed of sound and 200 miles per hour faster than the current Lockheed P-38 propeller plane–in 180 days. …
He [Kelly Johnson] broke away from the Lockheed main operation, taking 23 of the best design engineers and 30 mechanics with him, and set up camp in a rented circus tent next to a foul-smelling plastics factory, figuring the odor would help keep nosy parkers away. … Perhaps it was the stink that drove Kelly’s secret team to design and build the prototype for the P-80 Shooting Star–nicknamed Lulu Belle–in a mere 143 days. That’s 37 days ahead of schedule. …
Thus was born the de facto standard for running top secret projects among the world’s most innovative companies, and the model [Steve Jobs] used in launching the Macintosh division of Apple. In his biography of [Steve Jobs], [Walter Isaacson] tells how Jobs cherry-picked a team of about 20 “pirates,” as he referred to them, and seceded from the Apple main campus. He relocated the team to a small building three blocks away, next to a Texaco station. The two-story brown-shingled building became known as Texaco Towers. Jobs kept the renegade spirit alive with his maxim “it’s better to be a pirate than join the navy.” Jobs actively recruited rebels and swashbucklers–talented but audacious individuals who could move fast and get things done.
Over the years, the term Skunk Works has come to refer to any effort involving an elite special team that breaks away from the larger organization to work autonomously on an advanced or secret project, usually tasked with breakthrough innovation on limited budgets and under aggressive timelines.”
7 Reasons Your Brand Will Never Be as Awesome as Apple
“The world’s most valuable and most admired brand has given a lot of businesses a wicked bad case of Apply Envy. With over $100 billion in annual revenues and a 66% increase in net sales last year, it’s hard for even die-hard PC loyalists not to drool over Apple’s ability to rake in 50% of worldwide cell phone profits while commanding only 4% of unit sales.
2) You Don’t Care Enough About Your Customers
The world’s most successful brands don’t become (or remain) the world’s most successful brands without deep dedication to their customer’s needs. Apple’s customer focus is legendary. Spend five minutes in any one of their retail stores and you’ll experience it for yourself:
- Friendly, knowledgeable staff greet you the moment you walk in.
- Purchases never require standing in line – they come to you.
- Your new iPhone/iPad/Mac will be set up just the way you want it, right there in the store, by a friendly person who genuinely seems to care about YOU.
- If you have a problem or question, the Genius Bar is available at your convenience — a massive improvement over the frustrating, scripted tech support calls offered by most Apple competitors.
No wonder Apple stores pull in 18,000 visitors (on average) per week and rake in more than $5000/square foot (6x-10x more than other successful retailers!).
If you’re serious about elevating your brand to Apple status, you might want to take a page from their training manual:
- Approach customers with a personalized, warm welcome.
- Probe politely to understand all the customer’s needs.
- Present a solution for the customer to take home today.
- Listen for and resolve any issues or concerns.
- End with a fond farewell and an invitation to return.
If every business on the planet adopted this sort of customer-focused strategy, I’m pretty sure we’d have world peace.”
“Many firms assume that customers can do just one thing of real significance: buy their products and services. It’s time to seriously challenge that assumption, as many companies are doing by looking to customers to fuel their growth engines. …
Customers know more about each other than you know about them. That’s the source of much of the stratospheric value placed on Facebook by investors. Imagine a traditional company that tried to generate the kind of information Facebook generates: real time data on what movies people are watching, where they travel, the books they’re reading, the restaurants they’ve tried. Facebook dispensed with all the research most companies would have tried to dig up, and instead focused on letting customers provide it. …
Customers are more credible than you are. That means they make better marketers for a firm than agencies or internal employees. …
Customers are more persuasive than you are. That means they make better sales people. Marc Benioff … relied instead on face-to-face meetings with prospects and customers in major city markets. He found, to his surprise, that prospects at such events were much more interested in talking with SFDC customers than with him and his executive team, and found to his delight that 80% of prospects who attended the events wound up becoming customers themselves — an amazing close rate for any offering. …
Customers often understand buyer needs better than you do. One of the great misconceptions still floating around is that customers can’t articulate their needs, much less develop ideas for products to satisfy them. A substantial body of well-established research has shown that many if not most successful innovations are customer-originated. In one compilation of studies of 1193 commercially successful innovations across nine industries by MIT’s Eric von Hippel, 737 (60%) came from customers. …
Prospects in your market would rather affiliate with their peers (your customers) than with you. …”